Scientific Steps Group

Steps For Civil, Constructions and Environmental Engineering


About the journal

Steps For Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering (SCCEE) (ISSN: 3005-8198 online)  (ISSN: 3005-818X Print) is an internationally recognized publication in the field of civil engineering and infrastructure. This scientific journal features peer-reviewed, open access articles and is published quarterly by SCIENTIFIC STEPS INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING SERVICES L.L.C.

Aims & Scope

Steps For Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering (SCCEE) aims to provide comprehensive coverage of the latest developments, research, and innovations in civil engineering and infrastructure. The journal serves as a resource for researchers, practitioners, and students, highlighting advancements and innovative ideas in the field. The scope of the journal encompasses a broad range of topics related to civil engineering, including but not limited to: structures, geotechnics, transportation, environment, earthquakes, water resources, construction engineering and management, and new materials.

The journal also provides a platform for the international civil engineering community to present and discuss matters of significant interest, such as new regulations and developments in the field. The focus of the journal is on original and interdisciplinary peer-reviewed research, with a particular emphasis on contributions that make fundamental contributions to the field of structural engineering and its intersections with other disciplines.

The journal welcomes submissions covering the following areas:

  • Civil Engineering (miscellaneous).
  • Building and Construction.
  • Structural Engineering.
  • Transportation.
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology.
  • Environmental Engineering.
  • Water Science and Technology.
  • Waste Management and Disposal.
  • Project management.

Editorial Board

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Dr. Ali Jahami, BEng, ME, Ph.D

Assistant Professor – University of Balamand, Lebanon

Associate Editor:

Prof. Jamal Khatib., BEng, M.Sc, PhD.
Professor at University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK.
Professor at Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon.

Editorial Board Members

Prof. Akmal S. Abdelfatah., B.Sc, M.Sc, PhD.
Professor of Civil Engineering at American University of Sharjah, UAE.

Prof. Mahmoud Enieb., BSc, M.Sc, PhD.
Professors at Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt

Prof. Pedro Da Silva Delgado., PhD

Professor at Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, portugal

Prof. Mutasim Abdel-Jaber., B.Sc, M.Sc, PhD.

Professor of Structural Engineering at Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman, Jordan.

Prof. Hakim S. Abdelgader, Ph.D, FACI.

Professor of Civil Engineering at University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya.

Prof. Adil K. Al-Tamimi, Ph.D.
Professor of Civil Engineering
College of Engineering, American University of Sharjah, UAE.

Prof. Yehya Temsah., B.Sc, MS. PhD.

Professor at Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon.

Prof. Camille A. Issa, Ph.D., P.E., F. SEI, F. ASCE.

Professor at Lebanese American University (LAU), Byblos, Lebanon.

Prof. Abdulkader Ismail Abdulwahab Al – Hadithi., B.Sc, M.Sc, PhD.

Professor at the College of Engineering, University of Anbar, Anbar, Iraq.




Prof. AQEEL Al-ADILI., B.Sc, M.Sc, PhD.

Professor at Civil Engineering Department, University of Technology, Baghdad, IRAQ.


Professor of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering
Department of Civil Engineering, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, JORDAN.

Prof. Moayyad Al-Nasra, Ph.D., P.E., CPESC, RSO.

Professor and Chair, Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania, USA.

Dr. Eliya Henin., PhD, PE, SE, PMP
Associate Professor at Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt

Dr. BASSAM A. O. TAYEH., B.Sc, M.Sc, PhD.

Associate Professor in Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, The Islamic University, Gaza.

Dr. Ashraf Hassan., PhD, PE.
Associate Professor at United Arab Emirates University, UAE

Dr. Michele D’Amato., PhD.

Associate Professor of Structural
Engineering at University of Basilicata,75100 Matera, Italy.

Dr. Tomasz Maleska., B.Eng, MSc. Eng, PhDAssociate Assistant Professor at Opole University of Technology, Opole, Poland

Dr. Ali Hatoum., B.Eng, M.E, PhD
ِAssistant professor at Faculty of Engineering, Islamic University of Lebanon, Wardanieh, Lebanon
Researcher at Faculty of Engineering, Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon

Dr. Avik Kumar DAS, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor at Institute of Ocean Engineering,
Shenzhen International Graduate School, Tsinghua University, Hong Kong, China.


Dr. Firas Barraj, BEng, ME, Ph.D
Assistant Professor at University of Balamand, AL Koura, Lebanon.


Dr. Oubaida Al-Momani., B.Eng, M.E, PhD.

Assistant Professor at  Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan.

Dr. Walid Darwish., BSc, M.Sc, PhD.
Assistant Professor at Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Dr. Kunal Bisht., B.Tech, ME, PhD.

Assistant Professor – Civil Engineering Department – KIET Group of Institutions, India.

Dr. Lina A. Jaber., BEng, M.Sc, PhD.
Assistant Professor at Civil Engineering at Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon

Dr. Hussein Mouzannar., BEng, ME, Ph.D
Assistant Professor at Al Maaref University, Beirut, Lebanon.

Dr. Wassel AL-Bodour., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering Department Chair
School of Engineering
The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan

Dr. Syed Umair Ali., B.Sc, M.S, PhD
Assistant Professor in King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals. Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Rana Zayd Haj Chhade., B.Eng, M.E, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor at Rafik Hariri University (RHU), Lebanon.

Dr. Ali Tighnavard
Balasbaneh., BE, ME, PhD.

Senior Lecturer at Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM).

Dr. Wissam Al-Taliby., B.S, M.S, PhD.

Assistant Professor at the Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Babylon, Iraq.

Dr. Somayajulu L. N. Dhulipala., B. Tech, M. Tech, PhD.

Computational Scientist in Uncertainty Quantification at Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID, USA.

Dr. Zaher Al- Masri., B.Eng, M.E, PhD.

Materials Specialist, Project Manager, and Researcher at SETS International, Beirut, Lebanon.

Article Processing Charges (APC)

All articles published in The Steps For Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering (SCCEE) are published in full open access. An article processing charge (APC) of 490 USD applies to papers accepted after peer review.

This article processing charge is to cover the costs of peer review, copyediting, typesetting, long-term archiving, and journal management.
Local VAT or Sales Tax will be added if applicable.
Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use SSG’s English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
You can read more about Article Processing Charges (APC) of SSG’s Journals.

Instructions for Authors

1.The STEPS for Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering (SCCEE) is an internationally recognized publication in the field of civil engineering and infrastructure. This scientific journal features peer-reviewed, open access articles and is published quarterly by SCIENTIFIC STEPS INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING SERVICES L.L.C.

2. Determine the type of article you wish to submit:

• Research Article/Original Research: A complete description of original research findings.
• Letters/Short Reports/Communications: Brief descriptions of research findings.
• Review Article: A comprehensive summary of a topic that identifies and summarizes the results of original articles on the topic. Review articles may include, but are not limited to, scoping reviews, systematic reviews, critical reviews, literature reviews, and meta-analyses.
• Case Report: A descriptive, exploratory or explanatory analysis of a person, group, or event.
• Viewpoint/Opinion: An essay presenting an opinion on a specific topic, which may sometimes be controversial.
3. Ensure the originality of your manuscript by checking it for plagiarism using a plagiarism checker. The maximum similarity rate allowed in the STEPS for Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering (SCCEE) is 20%. Additional information regarding publishing ethics, including plagiarism, can be found in the Publication Ethics.

4. Prepare your manuscript using the Microsoft Word Template

5. Submit your manuscript online through the submission website. The submitting author, who is typically the corresponding author, is responsible for the manuscript during the submission and peer-review process. The submitting author must confirm that all eligible co-authors have been included in the author list and have approved the submitted version of the manuscript. All co-authors can view the manuscript details in the submission system by registering and logging in using the email address provided during manuscript submission.

6. Manuscript presentation:

6.1. Formatting a Manuscript for Submission

a. Writing Style: Manuscripts must be written in clear, concise English and should be typed using a Times New Roman font, size 12 pt. Please use 1.5 line spacing for all materials. The total length of the paper, including text, tables, and figures, should not exceed 25 pages. Tables and figures should be placed within the text.
b. Formatting: Manuscripts should not include headers, footers, line numbers, notes, or footnotes. The final manuscript file size should not exceed 3 MB.
c. Scientific Ethics: The manuscript should follow ethical standards in scientific writing, including:
• Ensuring that all individuals who made significant contributions to the research are included as authors and those without significant contributions are excluded.
• Avoiding plagiarism by properly referencing sources and rephrasing as necessary.
• Taking caution regarding the novelty and copyrights of others.

6.2. Manuscript Structure:

A. Title Page: The title page should include the following elements:
i. Title: The title should be informative, meaningful, specific, and concise. It should avoid unnecessary jargon, abbreviations, and detail.
ii. Author Names: The full names of all authors should be provided.
iii. Author Affiliations: Institutional full addresses for all authors should be included.
iv. Corresponding Author: The name and email address of the corresponding author should be specified and marked with an asterisk (*). The corresponding author is responsible for any disputes arising from publication.
v. Abstract: The abstract should be limited to 250 words and should provide an overview of the research objectives, methodology, results, and conclusions.
vi. Keywords: Five selective and appropriate keywords should be included for indexing purposes. Avoid uncommon abbreviations and general terms.
Note: No other subheadings should be included in the manuscript.

B. Main Text
Original Investigations and Brief Reports typically comprise five sections: Introduction, Materials, Methods, Results, and Discussion.
i) Introduction
• This section provides the necessary context for the research work by presenting background information in three to four paragraphs. The introduction should explain the motivation and objectives of the study based on the type or category of information being presented. It should not include:
• A description of methods, results, or conclusions other than a brief outline of what was done and achieved in the final paragraph.
• Information on data collection and analysis methods.
• Brief terms of what was achieved.
• An extensive review of the field.
• An disproportionate citation of the author’s own work, the work of colleagues, or work that supports their findings while ignoring contradictory studies or work by competitors.

ii) Materials and Methods/Methodology
• This section should provide full details that would allow competent workers to replicate the experiment. The materials section should specify the exact technical specifications, quantities, and sources or methods of preparation. The methods section should describe the chronological order in which the study was carried out and should be brief yet informative. The section should clearly explain the study process and structure, including the materials used, the design of the experiment, the protocol for recording data, and the data analysis methods.
• Subheadings should be provided for each category, method, procedure, study area, or analysis used.
• Most of the section should be written in the past tense using passive voice, and results should not be included.

iii) Results/Case Studies
• This section presents the experimental data to the reader and is the most significant part of a paper. The results should be presented in tables and figures and each group of tables and figures should be introduced in a separate paragraph, noting the overall trends and data points of particular interest. Key statistics, such as the number of samples (n), the index of dispersion (SEM, SD), and the index of central tendency (mean, median, or mode), should be stated without reference for experimental studies. Any statistical analysis performed should be indicated and specific statistical data, such as p-values, should be included.
• The section should be short, clearly presented, and free from discussion.
• Tables and figures should be used to organize the data systematically, with tables showing exact values and figures showing trends or relationship effects.
• Figures and tables should be easy to understand without the need for reference to the text.
• The same information should not be presented in both a table and a figure.
• A textual representation of the key findings should be provided with each table and figure, using different tenses to give different information in the results section.
• Each table and figure presented in the paper should be referred to in the results section without reference.

iv) Discussion
• The discussion section is often the most challenging to write, but it should be straightforward if the previous sections have been properly constructed. The discussion should begin with a brief paragraph that provides an overview of the work and summarizes the most important findings. If the study characterized a phenomenon by studying specific effects, the results should be used to describe each effect in separate paragraphs. If the study presented a hypothesis, the results should be used to construct a logical argument to support or reject the hypothesis. If the study had three main objectives, the results should be used to address each of these objectives.
• The discussion should present the principles, relationships, and generalizations shown by the results, rather than simply reiterating the results.
• Exceptions or lack of correction should be pointed out, and unsettled points should be defined.
• The author’s results and interpretations should be.

vii) References
• All references cited in the text should be included in the References section. Careful consideration should be given to the selection of references, ensuring that they include relevant and key sources within the field as well as previous studies that support or provide context for the present work. References should not be included for the purpose of merely citing specific authors or journals, unless they are relevant to the current study. Previous publications from the author’s laboratory may be appropriate to cite. The references should be formatted according to the APA (7th edition) style.
• Examples of different reference types include:
Journal Articles: Afrianto (2018) “Being a Professional Teacher in the Era of Industrial Revolution 4.0: Opportunities, Challenges and Strategies for Innovative Classroom Practices,” English Language Teaching and Research, 2(1), 1-13.
Albantani, A. M., & Madkur, A. (2017) “Musyahadat Al Fidyu: Youtube-Based Teaching and Learning of Arabic as Foreign Language (AFL),” Dinamika Ilmu, 17(2), 291-308.
Books: McKibbin, B. (2007) Deep Economy: The Wealth of Communities and The Durable Future, New York: Times Book/Henry Hold and Co.
Panitch, L., & Gindin, S. (2012) The Making of Global Capitalism: The Political Economy of American Empire, London: Verso.
Book Chapters: Pigg, K. E., & Bradshaw, T. K. (2003) “Catalytic Community Development: A Theory of Practice for Changing Rural Society,” In Challenges for Rural America in The Twenty-First Century, edited by D. L. Brown & L. E. Swanson, Pennsylvania State University Press.
Regulations and Laws: Law Number 23 of 2011 concerning Zakat Management (2011, November 25), State Gazette of the Republic of Indonesia Year 2011 Number 115, Jakarta.
Law Number 5 of 1984 concerning Industry (1984, June 29), State Gazette of the Republic of Indonesia Year 1984 Number 22, Jakarta.
Theses: Choiri, A. (2021) Pemberdayaan Pemulung Melalui Pengelolaan Sampah Plastik di Medayu Utara Rungkut Surabaya [Thesis], UIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya, Surabaya.
Erizal, Y. (2011) Analisa Pelaksanaan Kemitraan Anak Angkat Bapak Angkat (ABA) dalam Usaha Agribisnis Kelapa Sawit di PT. GMP Kec. Pasaman Kabupaten Pasaman Barat [Thesis], University if Andalas, Padang.
Internet Sources: Jenkins, R. (2018, January 7) “Generation Z vs. Millennials: The 8 Differences You Need to Know,” HR Daily Advisor. Retrieved from
Maritime Security Agency of the Republic of Indonesia. (2021, June 25) “Amerika Serikat dan Indonesia Bangun Pusat Pelatihan Maritim,” Maritime Security Agency of the Republic of Indonesia. Retrieved from


Final checklist for submission
Before submitting the manuscript for publication, it is imperative for the authors to confirm the following details have been meticulously considered:

• The title page must accurately reflect the full title, as well as the names, designations, and institutional affiliations of all authors, along with a valid email address for future correspondence.
• The abstract must be succinct and structured, not exceeding 250 words.
• References must be cited in accordance with the APA (7th edition) style guidelines as stated in the Instruction to Authors section.
• Ensure that the headings of tables, their numbers, and captions for illustrations are present, with no repetition of information.
• Ensure that all photographs and illustrations are of high resolution, along with their respective captions.


Publication Ethics Statement

  • The SCCEE journal, published by SCIENTIFIC STEPS INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING SERVICES L.L.C, upholds high ethical standards in scholarly publication, aligning with the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines. Rigorous peer-review processes and stringent ethical policies are enforced to maintain the integrity and excellence of scientific contributions.
  • Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest: Authors are required to disclose any potential conflicts of interest that could influence their work.
  • Accurate Presentation of Findings: Authors must present their research truthfully and objectively discuss the significance of their findings.
  • Transparency in Research Methodology and Data: Detailed descriptions of research methods and data are necessary for replication. Authors are encouraged to deposit raw data publicly before manuscript submission.
  • Exclusivity of Submissions: Manuscripts submitted to SCCEE should not be under consideration by other journals simultaneously.
  • Translation Standards and Proper Citations: Translations of content must adhere to journal policies, and proper citations of original sources are necessary.
  • Prompt Error Reporting: Authors are responsible for promptly informing SCCEE of any errors discovered in their published papers.
  • Originality and Permissions: Manuscripts should contain original content, and permissions are needed for previously published figures or images.
  • Prohibition of Plagiarism and Misconduct: Instances of plagiarism, data falsification, improper authorship attribution, and related ethical concerns are taken extremely seriously by SCCEE journal. Editors are trained to handle such issues with a zero-tolerance policy, ensuring the highest level of publishing ethics.
  • To guarantee the authenticity and originality of submitted content, SCCEE journal employs iThenticate, a tool used to verify submissions against existing publications, preventing instances of duplicate or unethical content from being published. This commitment to maintaining publication ethics is integral to ensuring the integrity of scholarly works within the journal.
  • Image Integrity and Misrepresentation: Manipulation of images that could mislead interpretation is strictly prohibited.
  • Thorough Misconduct Investigations: Allegations of publication misconduct are thoroughly investigated, and appropriate action is taken if misconduct is confirmed.
  • SCCEE commits to upholding these ethical guidelines to maintain the integrity of scholarly work and ensure transparency in the publication process. These standards are enforced through a rigorous editorial process, including checks for plagiarism and image manipulation. The journal takes any allegations of misconduct seriously, conducting thorough investigations and taking necessary actions to maintain publication integrity.


Copyright / Open Access

The SCCEE journal, under SSG’s publication, follows an Open-Access model for articles published within it. These articles are disseminated in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Authors retain the copyright for their published work.

Upon publication, SCCEE will include the following statement at the conclusion of the article:

Copyright: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee SSG, Dubai, UAE.

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) license (

This note signifies that the published article is open access and governed by the CC BY license, allowing readers to access, distribute, and build upon the content while acknowledging the original authors.


Research Ethics

Research Involving Human Subjects:

  • Declaration of Helsinki: Access the Declaration of Helsinki for guidelines on ethical research involving human subjects.
  • Ethics Committee Approval: Obtaining approval from a local institutional review board (IRB) or an appropriate ethics committee is essential, with specific details required in the ‘Institutional Review Board Statement’.
  • Informed Consent: Participants must provide written informed consent for inclusion and publication.
  • Non-interventional Studies: Full disclosure to participants regarding anonymity, research purpose, data use, and associated risks is required.
  • Ethical Approval Exemption: If not required, authors should provide exemption details or cite relevant legislation.
  • Protection of Patient Information: Anonymization of patient details is necessary, and authors need signed informed consent for publication of case details, personal information, or images.
  • Vulnerable Groups and Categorization: Additional scrutiny may occur for studies involving vulnerable groups, and justification for categorization by race, ethnicity, gender, etc., should be explained.

Ethical Guidelines for Animal Research:

Research Involving Cell Lines:

  • Cell Line Origin and Approval: Find guidance on cell line origin and approvals from institutional review boards or ethics committees through specific journals, institutions, or published papers in the field of cell biology.

Research Involving Plants:

  • Compliance with Guidelines: Explore information related to plant research guidelines from institutions, national bodies, or international conventions such as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention on the Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.

Clinical Trials Registration:

Dual Use Research of Concern:

  • Indication and Explanation: Seek information on dual-use research concerns from sources related to biosecurity, national security, and relevant international laws or guidelines.

Sex and Gender in Research:

  • SAGER Guidelines: Refer to the ‘Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines‘ for guidance on incorporating sex and gender considerations in research.

Borders and Territories:

  • Editorial Neutrality: Editorial policies of journals often reflect a neutral stance on disputes over borders and territories. These principles guide content decisions and dispute resolution processes within the journal’s framework.


Citation Policy

Authors are required to adhere to strict guidelines regarding citation practices to ensure academic integrity and proper attribution of sources.

  • Clear and Appropriate Citation: All sources used, including the author’s own previously published work, must be cited clearly and accurately. Obtaining appropriate permissions, when necessary, is imperative.
  • Avoidance of Excessive Self-Citation: Authors should refrain from excessive self-citation, maintaining a balanced and unbiased citation practice.
  • Read-before-Citing Policy: Authors are expected to have read and comprehended the content of the references they cite. Copying references without reviewing the content is unacceptable.
  • Impartial Citation Practices: Authors should not show bias by preferentially citing their own, friends’, peers’, or institution’s publications.
  • Avoidance of Advertisement Citations: Citations of advertisements or advertorial material are not permitted in scholarly works.

In line with the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, direct quotations from other researchers’ work, including the author’s own, should be appropriately marked within quotation marks and cited. COPE has issued a discussion document on citation manipulation, offering recommendations for best practices.

SCCEE expects authors to strictly adhere to these citation policies to maintain the scholarly integrity of published work. These guidelines aim to promote fairness, transparency, and ethical citation practices within academic research and publishing.